Today we’ll take a quick look at some related compounds, all derivatives of butyric acid.
Butyric acid is a short-chain fatty acid, and gets its name from the Greek for “butter” – and is, appropriately, responsible for the distinctive smells of rancid butter and vomit. Esters of butyric acid (e.g. methyl/ethyl butyrate) are often used as artificial flavourings and in perfumes, typically having fruity odours.
The sodium salt of butyric acid, sodium butyrate, is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. [1,2] HDACs regulate a number of the body’s processes; inhibiting some can increase follistatin levels and suppress myostatin, other HDACs (the sirtuins) may hold the key to treating conditions like Azheimers, diabetes, and even aging. One study (/advertisement) found oral supplementation of sodium butyrate in mice increase energy expenditure and improved insulin sensitivity in mice. 
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important neurotransmitter, and also has peripheral effects in a variety of tissues. GABA receptors can also be triggered by a range of “GABAergic” drugs, which typically have relaxing, anxiolytic, and anti-convulsive effects. GABAergic drugs including alcohol, benzodiazepines, z-drugs, and GHB. Oral administration of GABA has been associated with an increased growth hormone response to resistance training. 
Although it’s mostly thought of in the public consciousness as a date-rape drug, GHB is also used medicinally as a treatment for narcolepsy and alcoholism, and historically as an anaesthetic. As a medication the sodium salt form is preferred, known as sodium oxybate. GHB is also a growth-hormone secretagogue [5,6] though anyone considering self-experimentation for ergogenics or aesthetics should be aware it is a controlled drug.
Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is a ketone body produced by the liver during periods of fasting or reduced carbohydrate intake (ketosis). Ketone bodies can be used by most cells as an alternative fuel source to glucose.
A ketogenic diet increases the levels of the thermogenic tissue brown fat in mice.  Moreover, the ketone body BHB has been found to be a strong white fat browning agent. 
Beta-hydroxybutyric acid salts can be found in Patrick Arnold’s KetoForce and KetoCaNa products.  KetoForce and KetoCaNa can be used as an energy source to improve physical performance, or to ease the transition from glucose metabolism into ketosis for ketogenic dieters.
Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), a catabolite of the amino acid valine, has recently been identified as a white-fat browning agent and exercise mimetic.  It’s believed BAIBA acts as a myokine, transmitting exercise-induced signals to other parts of the body like the liver and fat tissue, and may be responsible for some of the metabolic benefits of exercise. [11,12]
BAIBA can be found in the Antaeus Labs products LipoMorph and Modular Series BAIBA. 
1. Candido EP, Reeves R, Davie JR. Sodium butyrate inhibits histone deacetylation in cultured cells. Cell. 1978 May;14(1):105–13.
2. Davie JR. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase Activity by Butyrate. J Nutr. 2003 Jan 7;133(7):2485S – 2493S.
3. Gao Z, Yin J, Zhang J, Ward RE, Martin RJ, Lefevre M, et al. Butyrate Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Increases Energy Expenditure in Mice. Diabetes. 2009 Jan 7;58(7):1509–17.
4. Powers ME, Yarrow JF, McCoy SC, Borst SE. Growth hormone isoform responses to GABA ingestion at rest and after exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Jan;40(1):104–10.
5. Van Cauter E, Plat L, Scharf MB, Leproult R, Cespedes S, L’Hermite-Balériaux M, et al. Simultaneous stimulation of slow-wave sleep and growth hormone secretion by gamma-hydroxybutyrate in normal young Men. J Clin Invest. 1997 Aug 1;100(3):745–53.
6. Volpi R, Chiodera P, Caffarra P, Scaglioni A, Saccani A, Coiro V. Different control mechanisms of growth hormone (GH) secretion between γ-amino- and γ-hydroxy-butyric acid: neuroendocrine evidence in parkinson’s disease. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1997 Oct 1;22(7):531–8.
7. Srivastava S, Baxa U, Niu G, Chen X, Veech RL. A ketogenic diet increases brown adipose tissue mitochondrial proteins and UCP1 levels in mice. IUBMB Life. 2013 Jan;65(1):58–66.
8. Carrière A, Jeanson Y, Berger-Müller S, André M, Chenouard V, Arnaud E, et al. Browning of white adipose cells by intermediate metabolites: an adaptive mechanism to alleviate redox pressure. Diabetes. 2014 Oct;63(10):3253–65.
9. Prototype Nutrition: Products
10. Roberts LD, Boström P, O’Sullivan JF, Schinzel RT, Lewis GD, Dejam A, et al. β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Cell Metab. 2014 Jan 7;19(1):96–108.
11. Ginter E, Simko V. Recent data on obesity research: β-aminoisobutyric acid. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2014;115(8):492–3.
12. Kammoun HL, Febbraio MA. Come on BAIBA Light My Fire. Cell Metabolism. 2014 Jan 7;19(1):1–2.
13. Antaeus Labs: Products