Today we’ll take a quick look at some related compounds, all derivatives of butyric acid.

Butyric acid
butyric acid
Butyric acid is a short-chain fatty acid, and gets its name from the Greek for “butter” – and is, appropriately, responsible for the distinctive smells of rancid butter and vomit. Esters of butyric acid (e.g. methyl/ethyl butyrate) are often used as artificial flavourings and in perfumes, typically having fruity odours.
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Philae, amino acids, and the origins of life

Space: the final frontier
Last week, the Philae probe successfully landed on comet 67P, an icy lump of rock which is over 3 miles long and nearly 2 miles wide – and over 300 million miles away.


Comet 67P, or Churyumov–Gerasimenko. ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM

One of the reasons that comets are of such interest to scientists that the European Space Agency would spend 1.4 billion euros sending the Rosetta spacecraft 4 billion miles on a mission that would take ten years to come to fruition, is that comets could hold clues to the origin of life on Earth.
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Chaotic Labz Mayhem spiked with prescription-only drugs

Long-time readers will remember Chaotic Labz for their BMF Salvation product, which we revealed in 2012 had been spiked with the prescription-only drug cyproheptadine. Today, another of their products has been found to contain undeclared pharmaceutical ingredients.
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What is Queen Bee Acid?

Royal jelly is the special food that is fed to bee larvae that transforms them into new queens instead of ordinary worker bees. It is comprised of about 3-7% lipids, of which the unsaturated medium-chain fatty acid known as “queen bee acid” is the major component.
Although the ingredient that effects the massive increase in body size is believed to be the protein “royalactin”, other royal jelly ingredients like queen bee acid have some very interesting effects in their own right.

queen bee acid

10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, or queen bee acid

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DASCA – The Designer Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2014

The Designer Steroid Control Act of 2014 (H.R. 4771), the latest in a long line of legislative actions intended to bring an end to the sale of anabolic steroids, was passed by a voice vote in the House of Representatives recently. The bill still needs to pass the Senate before being signed into law by the President, but the writing’s very much on the wall for the designer steroid market.
There’s a lot of misunderstanding and misinformation surrounding DASCA, with some people claiming that it would outlaw anything that builds muscle, including things like protein and creatine, and others suggesting it just adds 25 new compounds to the Controlled Substances Act, and yet others claiming that prohormones would be fine if sold as “research chemicals”, so lets take a look at the bill in a little more detail.
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An Introduction to 11β-HSD1 Inhibition

Aside from their oft-exploited anti-inflammatory properties, glucocorticoids such as cortisol have number of other effects. They inhibit the uptake of glucose into muscle, shift homeostasis into a catabolic state, and promote the deposition of fat.
High levels of glucocorticoids cause visceral obesity (fat around the internal abdominal organs), insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, adverse cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and cardiac problems; so called “metabolic syndrome”.

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